Member Login

Username

Password

Auto-login for future visits

Join WPT

Join Now

Membership Benefits:

Close Button

Brown-throated Conure

 (Eupsittula pertinax)

Also known as: Brown-throated Parakeet, Yellow-cheeked Parakeet, St. Thomas or Curacao Conure (E.p. pertinax), Brown-eared Conure (E.p. ocularis), Veragua Conure or Parakeet

Click photo to visit gallery

Brown-throated Conure perched
© Steve Milpacher

Did You Know?

The Brown-throated Conure usually nests in an arboreal termitarium (termite mound in a tree) but will also use rock crevices and burrows in banks.

Academic Research

Related publications: Eupsittula pertinax

Species Profile

Genus: Eupsittula | Species: pertinax

Size:

25cm (9.75 in)

Weight:

76-102g (2.7-3.6 oz)

Races including nominate:

fourteen: E.p. pertinax, E.p. xanthogenia, E.p. arubensis, E.p. aeruginosa, E.p. griseipecta, E.p. lehmanni, E.p. tortugensis, E.p. margaritensis, E.p. venezuelae, E.p. chrysophrys, E.p. surinama, E.p. chrysogenys, E.p. paraensis, E.p. ocularis

Colourization Adult:

E.p. pertinax: Both adults in general green but with paler green/yellow on underparts; orange/yellow on forehead, lores and sides of head; pale olive/brown throat and upper breast; centre of abdomen sprinkled with differing orange markings; outer webs of primary feathers green, turning to dull blue at tips; green tail with blue/green tip. Bill grey/black. Eye ring thin, bare and off-white. Eye yellow.
E.p. xanthogenia: Both adults as in pertinax, but orange/yellow of head brighter and reaching to crown.
E.p. arubensis: Both adults orange/yellow of head restricted to eye area; pale yellow forehead; dull green/blue crown; mix of orange/yellow and brown on lores, cheeks and sides of head; brown ear coverts with yellow shafts of feathers; yellow/brown throat and upper breast.
E.p. aeruginosa: Both adults as in arubensis but yellow/buff of forehead absent or minimal; orange/yellow confined to line around eye.
E.p. griseipecta: Both adults as in aeruginosa but with olive/grey cheeks, throat and upper breast; orange/yellow around eye absent; yellow shafts of feathers on cheeks and ear coverts absent; green crown with little blue; orange wash on lower underparts absent.
E.p. lehmanni: Both adults as in aeruginosa, but orange/yellow around eye more extensive; green/blue confined to forecrown.
E.p. tortugensis: Both adults as in aeruginosa, but with more orange/yellow on sides of head; more yellow underwing coverts; larger in size.
E.p. margaritensis: Both adults whitish forehead; dull green/blue forecrown; pale olive throat and upper breast; darker lower underparts, with less yellow/green and minimal orange on abdomen.
E.p. venezuelae: Both adults as in margaritensis but with paler green, more yellow upperparts; white band on forehead absent; paler lower underparts with more yellow/green and orange wash across abdomen.
E.p. chrysophrys: Both adults as in venezuelae, but with darker green underparts; darker brown lores, cheeks and ear coverts with yellow shafts to feathers; darker brown throat; pale brown/yellow forehead.
E.p. surinama: Both adults as in chrysophrys but orange/yellow of head reaching from below eye to cheeks and base of lower mandible; frontal band orange/yellow and narrow.
E.p. chrysogenys: Both adults in general darker than other subspecies; frontal band absent; dark green/blue crown; dark blue outer webs of flight feathers; dark brown throat, breast and sides of head; dark orange tint on centre of abdomen.
E.p. paraensis: Both adults blue/green forehead and crown; dark green upperparts; dark blue outer webs of primary and secondary feathers; dark orange/yellow lower underparts with brown and green marks on upper abdomen; green flanks, thighs and undertail coverts; dull green/yellow undertail. Eye red.
E.p. ocularis: Both adults green crown and forehead; area above and below eye orange/yellow; buff/brown sides of head, darker on ear coverts and lores; orange/brown upper breast and throat.

Colourization Juvenile:

E.p. pertinax: As in adults but with brownish cheeks, with orange feathers occasionally; brown forehead tinted with green; greenish tint to throat and upper breast. Upper mandible pale horn in colour. Eye grey.
E.p. surinama: In general duller than adults; orange/yellow on face and forehead paler and less far-reaching.
E.p. ocularis: Orange/yellow in front of and below eye absent; more greenish throat and foreneck, rather than brown.

Call:

Very noisy and raucous; calls continuously while in flight, rapid, staccato notes. When perched a two-syllable cheer-cheedit, the second note being drawn out. Also chattering while at rest.

Listen Now

Video Links:

Video 1 | Video 2

More Information:

Lexicon of Parrots
AvianWeb

Content Sources:

Southeast Texas Avian Rescue
Lexicon of Parrots
BirdLife International
CITES
Internet Bird Collection
ML Media Collection Catalogue 117027, Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax, Marantz, Curtis, Amazonas, Brazil, Nov. 15 1996, Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Site
Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World, Juniper and Parr, 1998
Parrots of the World, Forshaw and Cooper, 1977. 2010 issue
Parrots of the World, Forshaw, 2006.
Parrots in Aviculture, Low, 1992.

Click photo to visit gallery

Brown-throated Conure perched
© Steve Milpacher

Did You Know?

The Brown-throated Conure usually nests in an arboreal termitarium (termite mound in a tree) but will also use rock crevices and burrows in banks.

Academic Research

Related publications: Eupsittula pertinax

Species Care

Captive Status:

Formerly common in captivity, now uncommon.

Longevity:

10-25 yrs

Housing:

Aviary or suspended enclosure, minimum length 2m (6.5 ft).

Diet:

Fruit such as: apple, pear, orange, cactus fruits, pomegranate, forming about 30 percent of the diet; vegetables such as: carrot, celery, green beans and peas in the pod; fresh corn; green leaves such as: Swiss chard, lettuce, sowthistle, dandelion, chickweed; spray millet; small seed mix such as: millet, canary, and smaller amounts of oats, buckwheat, safflower and some hemp; soaked and sprouted sunflower seed; cooked beans and pulses; boiled maize; limited cubed hard cheese; complete pellet.

Enrichment:

Are avid chewers so provide bird-safe woods (fir, elder, pine), branches of different sizes, vegetable-tanned leather toys, puzzle toys, foraging toys, swings, ladders and ropes. Enjoys socialization and bathing.

Nest Box Size:

7" x 7" x 28" (18cm x 18cm x 71cm) vertical box made of hard wood.

Clutch Size:

3-5

Incubation Time:

23-24 days

Fledging Age:

7 weeks

Hatch Weight:

Not available

Peak Weight:

Not available

Weaning Weight:

Not available

Click photo to visit gallery

Brown-throated Conure perched
© Steve Milpacher

Did You Know?

The Brown-throated Conure usually nests in an arboreal termitarium (termite mound in a tree) but will also use rock crevices and burrows in banks.

Academic Research

Related publications: Eupsittula pertinax

Species Wild Status

World Population:

Not recorded

IUCN Red List Status:

Least Concern

CITES Listing:

Appendix II

Threat Summary:

Trapping for wild bird trade has had an effect on the small island race tortugensis.

Range:

E.p. pertinax: Curacao, Netherland Antilles, off coast of Venezuela; feral population in St. Thomas and Saba, in Virgin Islands, West Indies.
E.p. xanthogenia: Bonaire, Netherland Antilles.
E.p. arubensis: Aruba, Netherland Antilles.
E.p. aeruginosa: N Colombia from Caribbean coast south in middle Rio Magdalena valley to N Santander, and east through Guajira Peninsula to NW Zulia, NW Venezuela.
E.p. griseipecta: Found only in Rio Sinu valley, NE Colombia.
E.p. lehmanni: C and E Colombia, east of Andes, from Casanare south to N Vaupes and east to Rio Orinoco in western Amazonas, S Venezuela.
E.p. tortugensis: Tortuga Island, off coast of Venezuela.
E.p. margaritensis: Margarita and Los Frailes Islands, off coast of Venezuela.
E.p. venezuelae: Found throughout Venezuela, except northwest, Delta Amacuro and SE Monagas, SE Bolivar and W Amazonas.
E.p. chrysophrys: Middle Guyana, Cerro Roraima district to upper Rio Caroni in SE Bolivar, Venezuela, and N Roraima in N Brazil.
E.p. surinama: French Guiana, Surinam, and coast of Guyana to Delta Amacuro and SE Monagas, NE Venezuela.
E.p. chrysogenys: Lower Rio Negro and Rio Solimoes area, west to Igarape Belem, Amazonas, NW Brazil.
E.p. paraensis: Restricted to south of Amazon River from Rio Tapajos and Rio Cururu, W Para, N Brazil.
E.p. ocularis: E Costa Rica along Rio Coto, and lowlands near Pacific of Panama and W Chiriqui east to W Panama, near Panama City and Tocumen.

Habitat:

Usually found below 1200m (3936 ft) but up to 1600m (5248 ft) in varying habitats from savanna, gallery formations, deciduous forest edges, cactus scrub, mangroves, cultivated areas with scattered trees, plantations and gardens.

Wild Diet:

Eats seeds of various shrubs, fruits and flowers. Takes cultivated crops such as mango and millet, but not widely persecuted.

Ecology and Behaviour:

Found in flocks feeding with macaws and amazon parrots. Roosts communally in large gatherings, also congregates where food abundant. Becomes noisy and competitive while feeding.

Clutch and Egg Size:

3-5 rounded, roughened eggs, 26.5 x 22.0mm (1.0 x 0.85 in)

Breeding Season:

Colony breeder. February-April, Meta, Colombia; February-April, Venezuela; various times of year after rains in Surinam, Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire.

Related Links:

Wikipedia
Cornell Neotropical Unit

Click photo to visit gallery

Brown-throated Conure perched
© Steve Milpacher

Did You Know?

The Brown-throated Conure usually nests in an arboreal termitarium (termite mound in a tree) but will also use rock crevices and burrows in banks.

Academic Research

Related publications: Eupsittula pertinax

Members Only Resources

Please log-in now to find more research, resources and tools.

Not a Member?

Find more great information:

Gain exclusive access to 600+ pages of additional research, seminars and podcasts, specialists to ask your toughest questions, and dozens of other fun resources - when you become a WPT member.

Already a Member?

Encyclopedia

Search by:
Common Name


Geographic Location


Type of Parrot


Taxonomic Name


Sign Up to Stay Informed




Become A WPT Member Check out the Latest Podcasts Parrot Lover's Cruise