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White-eyed Conure

 (Psittacara leucophthalmus)

Also known as: White-eyed Parakeet, Green Conure

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Wild White-eyed Conure, Sao Paulo, Brazil
© By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Did You Know?

The White-eyed Conure usually nests in a high tree cavity but may also nest in limestone caverns, particularly in Brazil.

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Related publications: Psittacara leucophthalmus

Species Profile

Genus: Psittacara | Species: leucophthalmus

Size:

32cm (12.5 in)

Weight:

140-170g (5-6 oz)

Races including nominate:

four: P.l. leucophthalmus, P.l. callogenys, P.l. propinquus, P.l. nicefori

Colourization Adult:

P.l. leucophthalmus: Both adults in general green, with variable scattering of red feathers on head and neck; red carpal edge and edge of forewing; red outer lesser underwing coverts, green inner coverts; yellow outer greater underwing coverts, olive inner coverts. Bill horn in colour. Eye ring bare and white. Eye orange.
P.l. callogenys: Both adults as in leucophthalmus, but with larger bill. Larger in size. Western birds have darker green body colour.
P.l. propinquus: Both adults as in leucophthalmus, but larger in size.
P.l. nicefori: Both adults as in callogenys, but in general body colour paler and more yellow; red stripe across forehead.

Colourization Juvenile:

P.l. leucophthalmus: As in adults but with yellow/green carpal edge and edge of forewing, suffused with red; olive/green outer greater underwing coverts; red feathers on head and neck minimal or absent. Shorter tail. Eye brown.

Call:

Calls made in flight are repetitious and sharp, almost metallic, notes. Also emits scolding and grating sounds, and more melodious notes.

Listen Now

Video Links:

Video 1 | Video 2

Content Sources:

International Conure Association
CITES
BirdLife International
Internet Bird Collection
Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World, Juniper and Parr, 1998
Parrots of the World, Forshaw and Cooper, 1977. 2010 edition
Parrots of the World, Forshaw, 2006.
Parrots in Aviculture, Low, 1992.
Psittacine Aviculture, Schubot, Clubb and Clubb, 1992.

Click photo to visit gallery

Wild White-eyed Conure, Sao Paulo, Brazil
© By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Did You Know?

The White-eyed Conure usually nests in a high tree cavity but may also nest in limestone caverns, particularly in Brazil.

Programs & Projects

WPT has helped to save this species. Learn more

Academic Research

Related publications: Psittacara leucophthalmus

Species Care

Captive Status:

Not common

Longevity:

25-30yrs

Housing:

Aviary or suspended enclosure, minimum length 3m (9.8 ft).

Diet:

Fruits such as: apple, pear, banana, orange, cactus fruits, pomegranates, forming about 30 percent of the diet; vegetables such as: carrots, celery, green beans and peas in the pod; fresh corn; green leaves such as: Swiss chard, lettuce, sowthistle, dandelion, chickweed; spray millet; small seed mix such as: millet, canary, and smaller amounts of oats, buckwheat, safflower and a little hemp; soaked and sprouted sunflower seed; cooked beans and pulses and boiled maize; limited cubed hard cheese; complete pellet.

Enrichment:

Provide water bowls for bathing; swings, ladders, ropes, puzzle/foraging toys, vegetable tanned leather chew toys, bird-safe wooden toys; fir, pine and willow branches and perches, heat sterilized pine cones.

Nest Box Size:

Vertical box 12" x 12" x 18" (30.5cm x 30.5cm x 46cm).

Clutch Size:

4

Incubation Time:

Probably 24 days.

Fledging Age:

9 weeks

Hatch Weight:

Not available

Peak Weight:

Not available

Weaning Weight:

Not available

Specialist Club:

Conure.org

Click photo to visit gallery

Wild White-eyed Conure, Sao Paulo, Brazil
© By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Did You Know?

The White-eyed Conure usually nests in a high tree cavity but may also nest in limestone caverns, particularly in Brazil.

Programs & Projects

WPT has helped to save this species. Learn more

Academic Research

Related publications: Psittacara leucophthalmus

Species Wild Status

World Population:

Not recorded

IUCN Red List Status:

Least Concern

CITES Listing:

Appendix II

Threat Summary:

High volume of international trade, particularly in Argentina, where the species may be under some threat.

Range:

P.l. leucophthalmus: Guianas, NE Venezuela, from SE Sucre, Monagas, and N Anzoategui to NE Bolivar, and E Colombia, south from Meta, south through Brazil, except upper Amazon River basin, dry northeast and southeast, to E Bolivia, Paraguay and N Argentina, south to Catamarca and N Sante Fe and Entre Rios and into N Uruguay.
P.l. callogenys: Upper Amazonia, near foothills of Andes, in SE Colombia, E Ecuador, and NE Peru to NW Brazil.
P.l. propinquus: SE Brazil in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, to NE Argentina, in Misiones and Corrientes.
P.l. nicefori: One specimen collected at Guaicaramo, on Rio Guavio, Meta, Colombia. Possibly a hybrid.

Habitat:

Found up to 2500m (8200 ft) in a range of mainly lowland forest and woodland types. In Amazonia is found in tropical rainforest mostly near to rivers, scattered woodland and cultivated land in the pantanals, mangroves, savanna and palms; chaco woodland in the south, gallery and floodplain forests in Bolivia.

Wild Diet:

Feeds on fruits of palms, nuts, seeds, other fruits, berries, flowers and insects.

Ecology and Behaviour:

Very gregarious, commonly forming flocks of several hundred birds which range widely along riverways between feeding areas and roosts. Roosts communally in trees, canefields and caves. Travels with Blue-crowned Conures, Blue-headed Parrots, Chestnut-fronted Macaws and Crimson-bellied Conures.

Clutch and Egg Size:

4 eggs, 31.0 x 25.0mm (1.2 x 1 in).

Breeding Season:

November-December, Argentina; July-August, E Peru; January-April, Mato Grosso.

Related Links:

Cornell Neotropical Unit

Click photo to visit gallery

Wild White-eyed Conure, Sao Paulo, Brazil
© By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Did You Know?

The White-eyed Conure usually nests in a high tree cavity but may also nest in limestone caverns, particularly in Brazil.

Programs & Projects

WPT has helped to save this species. Learn more

Academic Research

Related publications: Psittacara leucophthalmus

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