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Golden Conure

 (Guaruba guarouba)
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© Mark Dupont [CC BY-SA 2.0]

Project Status: Completed | 1999 -


INPA (Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia), BioBrasil, Tennessee Valley Exotic Bird Club, Grant Hacking, Glenn Reynolds, Lymington Foundation

WIld conure populations vulnerable to human activities

The Golden Conure (Guaruba guarouba) has suffered losses due to trapping, and habitat loss and fragmentation.

Progress and outcomes:  The World Parrot Trust has been supporting active conservation and studies with a number of researchers for the Golden Conure since 1999. Work has included conducting surveys, mapping nesting trees, observing individual and flock behaviour, and determining food preferences.

Field research undertaken in 2007 in the Western state of Para, Brazil, identified new food types used by the species, uncovered unique flock dynamics, and located new roosting and nesting trees. Deforestation and trapping of nestlings were observed in the Amazonia National Park region.

View research

With your help we can complete these important tasks to better understand the species, and continue to deliver effective solutions to further their conservation. 

IUCN/CITES Status: Vulnerable / Appendix I

Wild population: 10,000 - 20,000

Where found: Confined to NE Brazil, south of the Amazon River, from west of the Tapajos River, western Para, east to NW Maranhao.

History: The Golden Conure, Guaruba guarouba, is found in Brazil, in the Tocantins, lower Xingú and Tapajós rivers in the Amazon Basin of Pará. There have been additional sightings in adjacent north Maranhão, where populations live around Gurupi and the Rio Capim (C. Yamashita in litt. 2000).  There are a number of areas, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, and Amazonas, where the species has been recorded once or twice, and not seen since.  It may be that the Golden Conure has always been rare, but indications are that overall numbers must have declined considerably due to human interference. The species is susceptible to hunting and trapping and its population is projected to decline from this, and habitat loss.


  • Habitat loss and fragmentation from road construction and illegal logging
  • Hunting for food and sport
  • Trapping for wild bird trade
  • Persecution as crop pest
  • Loss of nesting sites

Ecology: This species is found in lowland rainforest, recently seen more upland, and near Brazil-nut plantations at alititudes of up to 500m (1640 ft).  Birds forage in tall forest but will take some cultivated plants, but mainly take nuts, fruits, flowers and buds.  The Golden Conure is somewhat nomadic; will venture into different areas after breeding season.  Birds are gregarious at all times of year, roosting and flocking in groups of 3-30 birds.

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