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Scientific Publications

The World Parrot Trust places a strong emphasis on science to guide our conservation work. We are involved in all stages of the scientific process by securing funding, designing studies, collecting data, analysing results and sharing findings through peer-reviewed scientific papers, conference presentations and the popular press.

Several of our staff, trustees and advisors are highly-trained scientists and are regularly asked to peer-review scientific papers for major journals.


Publications by Year:



*†Davies, Alisa, D’Cruze, Neil, Senni, Cristiana, Martin, Rowan O. 2022. Inferring patterns of wildlife trade through monitoring social media: Shifting dynamics of trade in wild-source African Grey parrots following major regulatory changes.



*Cunningham, Susan J., Gardner, Janet L., Martin, Rowan O. 2021. Opportunity costs and the response of birds and mammals to climate warming.

†Campos, Carlos I., Martinez, Melinda A., Acosta, Daniel, Diaz-Luque, José A., Berkunsky, Igor, Lamberski, Nadine L., Cruz-Nieto, Javiere, Rosselló, Michael A., Wright, Timothy F. 2021 Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Two Endangered Neotropical Parrots Inform In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation Strategies.

*†Davies, Alisa, Hinsley, Amy, Nuno, Ana, Martin, Rowan O. 2021. Identifying opportunities for expert-mediated triangulation in monitoring wildlife trade on social media.

*†Haysom, Simone, Martin, Rowan 2021. Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime Trend Report: Online Markets for African Grey Parrots in Africa.

*Assou, Délagnon, Elwin, Angie, Norrey, John, Coulthard, Emma, Meson, David, Ronfot, Delphine, Auliya, Mark, Segniagbeto, Gabriel H., Martin, Rowan O., D’Cruze, Neil 2021. Trade in African Grey Parrots for Belief-Based Use: Insights From West Africa's Largest Traditional Medicine Market.

*Skirrow, Michael John Adam Smith, Adam N. H., Ortiz-Catedral, Luis 2021. Estimating the population size of orange-fronted parakeets (Cyanoramphus malherbi) on offshore islands of New Zealand.

*†Hellmich, Dominique L., Saidenberg, André B.S., Wright, Timothy F. 2021. Genetic, but Not Behavioral, Evidence Supports the Distinctiveness of the Mealy Amazon Parrot in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

*Ramos-Güivas, Brian, Jawor, Jodie M., Wright, Timothy F. 2021 Seasonal Variation in Fecal Glucocorticoid Levels and Their Relationship to Reproductive Success in Captive Populations of an Endangered Parrot.

†Mellor, Emma L., McDonald Kinkaid, Heather K., Mendl, Michael T., Cuthill, Innes C., van Zeeland, Yvonne R.A., Mason, Georgia J. 2021. Nature calls: intelligence and natural foraging style predict poor welfare in captive parrots.

*Martin, Graham R., Martin, Rowan O. 2021. Psittaciformes Sensory Systems.



*†Leaver, Jessica, Carstens, Kate, Wimburger, Kirsten, Padfield, Clare, Martin, Rowan O., Downs, Colleen, Singh, Preshnee, Davies-Mostert, Harriet, Morrison, Kerryn, Young, Anna 2020. A new action plan developed for the Cape parrot and its habitat.

*†Pacifico, Erica C., Efsthathion, Caroline A., Filadelfo, Thiago, Horsburgh,Robert, Cunha, Roberta A., Paschotto, Fernanda R., Dénes, Francisco V., Gilardi, James D., Tella, José L. 2020. Experimental removal of invasive Africanized honey bees increased breeding population size of the endangered Lear's macaw.

†Dupin, Molly K., Dahlin, Christine R., Wright, Timothy F. 2020. Range-Wide Population Assessment of the Endangered Yellow-Naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata)

†Tella, José L., Hiraldo, Fernando, Pacifico, Erica, Diaz-Luque, José A., Dénes, Francisco V., Fontoura, Fernanda M., Guedes, Neiva, Blanco, Guillermo 2020. Conserving the Diversity of Ecological Interactions: The Role of Two Threatened Macaw Species as Legitimate Dispersers of “Megafaunal” Fruits

†Brett, Georgia Michelle 2020. Behaviour and diet of the Tasman parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) on Norfolk Island, South Pacific

†Brett, Georgia, Ortiz-Catedral, Luis 2020. The importance of niau (Rhopalostylis baueri) in the diet of the Tasman parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) in the Norfolk Island National Park.

†James, Tamora D., Salguero-Gómez, Roberto, Jones, Owen R., Childs, Dylan Z., Beckerman, Andrew P. 2020. Bridging gaps in demographic analysis with phylogenetic imputation.



*†Ezenwa, Ifeanyi M., Nwani, Christopher, Ottosson, Ulf, Martin, Rowan O. 2019. Opportunities to boost protection of the grey parrot in Nigeria.

*†Martin, Rowan O., Senni, Cristiana, D’cruze, Neil, Bruschi, Nick 2019. Tricks of the trade—legal trade used to conceal Endangered African grey parrots on commercial flights.

*†Mzumara, Tiwonge I., Martin, Rowan O., Tripathi, Hemant, Phiri, Chaona, Amar, Arjun 2019. Distribution of a habitat specialist: Mopane woodland structure determines occurrence of Near Threatened Lilian’s Lovebird Agapornis lilianae.

*†Hemant G. Tripathi, Tiwonge I. Mzumara, Rowan O. Martin, Catherine L. Parr, Chaona Phiri, Casey M. Ryan 2019. Dissimilar effects of human and elephant disturbance on woodland structure and functional bird diversity in the mopane woodlands of Zambia.

†Sebastían-González, Esther, Hiraldo, Fernando, Blanco, Guillermo, Hernández-Brito, Dailos, Romero-Vidal, Pedro, Carrete, Martina, Gómez-Llanos, Eduardo, Pacífico, Erica C., Diaz-Luque, José A., Dénes, Francisco V., Tella, José L. 2019. The extent, frequency and ecological functions of food wasting by parrots.

†Simmonds, Serena Analeia 2019. Habitat use by Tasman parakeets (Cyanoramphus cookii) and Crimson rosellas (Platycercus elegans) on Norfolk Island, South Pacific.



†Ortiz-Catedral, Luis, Nias, Raymond, Fitzsimons, James, Vine, Samantha, Christian, Margaret 2018. Back from the brink – again: the decline and recovery of the Norfolk Island green parrot.

*Fogell, D.J., Martin, R.O., Bunbury, N., Lawson, B., Sells, J., McKeand, A.M., Tatayah, V., Trung, C.T., Groombridge, J.J. 2018. Trade and conservation implications of new beak and feather disease virus detection in native and introduced parrots. Conservation Biology.

*Martin R.O. 2018 The wild bird trade and African parrots: past, present and future challenges.

*Lopes D, Henriques M, Monteiro H, Martin RO, Catry P. 2018 (in press). Papagaio-cinzento-de-timneh – um tesouro das orestas bijagós. In: Catry P, Regalla A (eds). Parque Nacional Marinho João Vieira e Poilão: Biodiversidade e Conservação. IBAP – Instituto da Biodiversidade e das Áreas Protegidas,, Bissau.

*Lopes, Daniel C., Martin, Rowan O., Henriques, Mohamed, Monteiro, Hamilton, Cardoso, Paulo, Tchantchalam, Quintino, Pires, António J., Regalla, Aissa, Catry, Paulo 2018. Combining local knowledge and field surveys to determine status and threats to Timneh Parrots Psittacus timneh in Guinea-Bissau.

*†Martin, Rowan O., Senni, Cristiana, D’Cruze, Neil C. 2018. Trade in wild-sourced African grey parrots: Insights via social media.

†Wright, Timothy F., Lewis, Thomas C., Lezama-Lopez, Martín, Smith-Vidaurre, Grace, Dahlin, Christine R. 2018. Yellow-naped Amazon Amazona auropalliata populations are markedly low and rapidly declining in Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

†Dahlin, Christine R., Blake, Chelsea, Rising, Jake, Wright, Timothy F. 2018. Long-term monitoring of Yellow-naped Amazons (Amazona auropalliata) in Costa Rica: breeding biology, duetting, and the negative impact of poaching.

†Skirrow, Michael John Adam 2018. Estimating the population size of two critically endangered South Pacific parakeets: the Tasman Parakeet and Malherbe's Parakeet.



*Berkunsky et al. 2017. Current threats faced by Neotropical parrot populations. Biological Conservation. 214: 278-287.

*Martin, R. O. 2017. Grey areas: temporal and geographical dynamics of international trade of Grey and Timneh Parrots (Psittacus erithacus and P. timneh) under CITES. Emu - Austral Ornithology, 1–13.

*Lopes, D. C., Martin, R. O., Henriques, M., Monteiro, H., Regalla, A., Tchantchalam, Q., et al. 2017. Nest-site characteristics and aspects of the breeding biology of the endangered Timneh Parrot Psittacus timnehin Guinea-Bissau. Ostrich-Journal of African Ornithology, 1–8.

*Berkunsky, I., Cepeda, R., Marinelli, C., Simoy, M., Daniele, G., Kacoliris, F. Diaz Luque, Gilardi, J. 2016. Occupancy and abundance of large macaws in the Beni savannahs, Bolivia. Oryx,50(1), 113-120. Occupancy_and_abundance_of_large_macaws_in_the_Beni_savannahs_Bolivia

†Maestri, M. L., Ferrati, R., & Berkunsky, I. 2017. Evaluating management strategies in the conservation of the critically endangered Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis). Ecological Modelling, 361(Supplement C), 74–79.

*Saidenberg André B. S.,  Knöbl, T,  Melville PA,  Zuniga E, Salaberry SRS,  Benites NR, Brandão. PE. 2017. An Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate with Possible Human and Domestic Animal Origin from a Free-Living Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari). Journal of Wildlife Diseases  53 (2), 396-398

†Berkunsky, I., Segura, L. N., Ruggera, R. A., Faegre, S. I. K., Trofino-Falasco, C., López, F. G., et al. 2017. Reproductive parameters of the Turquoise-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva) in the dry Chaco forest. Avian Conservation and Ecology, 12(2).

*Cardador LLD, Diaz-Luque, Hiraldo F, Gilardi JD Tella J. 2017. The effects of spatial survey bias and habitat suitability on predicting the distribution of threatened species living in remote areas. Bird Conservation International, 1-12. http://doi:10.1017/S0959270917000144

†Horstman, Eric 2017. Establishing a Private Protected Area in Ecuador: Lessons learned in the management of Cerro Blanco Protected Forest in the city of Guayaquil.

†Baños-Villalba, Adrián, Blanco, Guillermo, Díaz-Luque, José A., Dénes, Francisco V., Hiraldo, Fernando, Tella, José L. 2017. Seed dispersal by macaws shapes the landscape of an Amazonian ecosystem

†Blanco, Guillermo, Hiraldo, Fernando, Tella, José L. 2017. Ecological functions of parrots: an integrative perspective from plant life cycle to ecosystem functioning.



†Berkunsky, I., Segura, L. N., Aramburu, R. M., Ruggera, R. A., Svagelj, W. S., & Reboreda, J. C. (2016). Nest Survival and Predation in Blue-Fronted Parrots Amazona aestiva: Effects of Nesting Behaviour and Cavity Characteristics. Ardea, 104(2), 143–151.

*Fogell, D.J., Martin, R.O. and Groombridge, J.J. 2016. Beak and feather disease virus in wild and captive parrots: an analysis of geographic and taxonomic distribution and methodological trends. Archives of Virology.

*Hart, J., Hart, T., Salumu, L., Bernard, A., Abani, R., and Martin, R. 2016. Increasing exploitation of Grey Parrots in eastern DRC drives population declines. Oryx 50: 16. http://dx/ 

*Saidenberg ABS, Gilardi JD Munn CA and Knöbl T. 2016  Avaliação de esfregaços corados pelo gram e prevalência de endoparasitas em araras de vida-livre. Atas de Saúde Ambiental.

*Saidenberg ABS, Zuniga E, Melville PA. 2016. Health-screening protocols for vinaceous Amazons (Amazona vinacea) in a reintroduction project. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, vol. 30, no. 1, 2

*Baños-Villalba, A., Blanco, G., Díaz-Luque, J. A., Dénes, F. V., Hiraldo, F., & Tella, J. L. 2017. Seed dispersal by macaws shapes the landscape of an Amazonian ecosystem. Scientific Reports, 7, 7373.


*WPT co-authored studies
†WPT co-funded studies