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Yellow-shouldered Amazon

 (Amazona barbadensis)
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© Sam Williams

Project Status: Active | 2002 - current


ECHO (Bonaire), RARE, University of Missouri-St. Louis, Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund (DWCF), STINAPA, Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance, Birdland UK, Drayton Manor Zoo, Exmoor Zoo, Harewood Bird Garden

Nest poaching and habitat alteration affect wild populations

With an estimated wild population in the low thousands the Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) is Vulnerable in the wild.

WPT conservation actions: Beginning in 2002 WPT began supporting a series of conservation and research projects to help protect the Yellow-shouldered Amazon on Bonaire and in Venezuela.

Progress: In 2001, WPT was contacted by RARE asking for help with a ringing and amnesty initiative to protect the birds on the island of Bonaire, near Venezuela. In 2002 this campaign began, with local nature and environment conservancy organisations, with an event at one of the primary schools. WPT provided a supply of discounted bands, and over 600 pet parrots were banded.

WPT has also supported Echo, a non-governmental organization that conserves Yellow-shouldered Amazons:

  • Conducting research and surveys on population and habitat use
  • Rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing parrots caught in the wild bird trade
  • Building capacity (training officers, constructing new enclosures to receive confiscated birds)
  • Protecting and restoring parrot habitat by planting native seedlings
  • Controlling feral domestic animals to protect habitat
  • Creating and distributing education campaigns
  • Protecting nest sites
  • Supporting captive breeding to boost wild population
  • Introducing sustainable tourism and children's clubs (Rangers and after-school activities)
  • Developing new methods to mitigate conflict with farmers

Population numbers of Yellow-shouldered Amazons on Bonaire have been increasing for the last decade. By 2015 the population had increased from 350 to over 1000 individuals, where it has consistently stayed for the last few years. Thousands of native trees have been planted, with dozens of hectares restored and protected on Bonaire, and the new adoption campaign, "My Bonaire Tree," has begun. In addition WPT has funded the rescue of a number of Amazons and other chicks confiscated and sent to Echo, where they were hand-raised in preparation for release back into the wild. WPT also backed a study, ‘The conservation genetics of the Yellow-shouldered Parrot’, in Venezuela.

IUCN/CITES Status: Vulnerable / Appendix I

World population: 2,590 - 8,470

Where found: Restricted to small coastal area in Venezuela and the islands of Blanquilla, Margarita and Bonaire. Introduced to Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles.

History: The Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) has a fragmented range with seven genetically isolated populations in N coastal Venezuela (Falcón, Lara, Anzoátegui and Sucre) and the islands of Margarita, La Blanquilla, Curaçao and Bonaire (Rodríguez-Ferraro 2009). The mainland population is apparently low. There are reports of a wild population on Curaçao since 1988 (De Boer 2008, A. Rodríguez-Ferraro in litt. 2012). It is now extinct on Aruba. On the islands there were 1,600 on Margarita in 2008 [Briceño-Linares et al. 2011], 100 on La Blanquilla in 1996-1998 [Rodríguez-Ferraro and Sanz 2007], and 650-800 on Bonaire in 2012 [Department of Resources and Planning, Bonaire per R. Martin and S. Williams in litt. 2012]).  In 1992, 12 captive-reared birds were reintroduced to Margarita (Sanz and Grajal 1998), which was moderately successful.


  • Capture for the wild bird trade
  • Destruction of habitat for tourist and associated developments
  • In some areas is hunted for allegedly damaging crops
  • Degradation of natural vegetation for timber and charcoal (Bonaire)
  • Overgrazing of plants by goats and donkeys, reducing natural food species diversity
  • Destruction of nest sites from poaching
  • Predation by introduced mammals

Ecology: This parrot occurs in areas with cacti and thorny bush and trees; also reported around cultivated areas and around mangroves. Found up to 450m (1476 ft) on Margarita, possibly higher on the mainland.  Birds take fruits of several trees and bushes, seeds, nectar rich blossoms, cactus tops, and cactus fruit. They will also sometimes take crops, such as avocado, mango and maize.

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